Fire is always a disaster. However, not everyone knows the basic rules of conduct in the event of a fire. And even the familiar from childhood - "call 911" - is forgotten in a panic. Here are some of the simplest tips to help you in a difficult situation. The main rule is never to panic!


APARTMENT Most fires occur in residential buildings. Their reasons are almost always the same - dilapidated communications, faulty electrical wiring, smoking in the wrong places and left unattended electrical appliances.

If you or your neighbors have a fire, the main thing is to immediately call the fire department. If a household electrical appliance catches fire, try to de-energize it, if the TV - first of all, pull the plug out of the outlet or de-energize the apartment through the electrical panel. Remember! A burning TV releases a lot of toxic substances, so try to immediately remove people from the room. Cover the TV with any thick cloth to stop air access. If this does not help, through the hole in the back wall, fill the TV with water. At the same time, try to be on the side: after all, the kinescope can explode. Check whether all the windows and windows are closed, otherwise the access of fresh air will add strength to the fire. If other electrical appliances or wiring are on fire, then you need to turn off the switch, switch or electrical plugs, and then call the firefighters.

If a fire has arisen and spread in one of the rooms, do not forget to close the doors of the burning room tightly - this will prevent the fire from spreading throughout the apartment and the staircase. Seal the door with wet rags so that smoke does not penetrate into the rest of the rooms. In a heavily smoky space, you need to move crawling or bending down.

Contrary to popular belief, putting out a fire with plain water is inefficient. It is best to use a fire extinguisher, and in its absence - a wet cloth, sand or even earth from a flower pot.

If you see that it is not possible to eliminate the fire on your own, immediately leave. Take documents, money and leave the apartment through the front door. If the path to the front door is cut off by fire and smoke - escape through the balcony. By the way, the safest places in a burning apartment are on the balcony or near the window. Here firefighters will find you faster! Just dress warmly if it's cold outside. Open the door to the balcony carefully, as the flame from a large influx of fresh air can increase. Do not forget to close the balcony door tightly behind you.

Try to go to the lower floor (using the balcony hatch) or along the adjacent balcony to the neighbors. But remember: it is extremely dangerous to go down ropes, sheets and drainage pipes. Especially don't jump down!

Another way of salvation is through the window. Seal the door to the room with rags. Once you're sure your call for help has been heard, lie down on the floor, where there is less smoke. Thus, you can hold out for about half an hour.

Since fire and smoke spread from the bottom up, residents of the upper floors should be especially careful.

If you accidentally find yourself in a smoke-filled entrance, move to the exit, holding on to the walls (railings often lead to a dead end). While in a high-rise building, do not run down through the flames, but use the opportunity to escape on The roof of the building, do not forget to use the fire escape. During a fire, it is forbidden to use the elevator - it can be turned off at any time. In addition, you will drive yourself into a trap, as you can "hang out" in the elevator between burning floors and get carbon monoxide poisoning. Getting out of the entrance to the street, hold your breath as long as possible, and even better - protect your nose and mouth with a wet scarf or handkerchief.


Large-scale fires most often occur in the kitchen and balcony. How to protect yourself from this?

Remember that it is dangerous to store flammable substances and various rags in the kitchen and on the balcony. After all, even a cigarette butt accidentally flew onto the balcony can cause a strong fire! Similarly, in the kitchen - curtains fluttering with the breeze can flash if they hang in the immediate vicinity of the stove. Therefore, you should not clutter the kitchen and balcony with unnecessary things, old furniture, waste paper and other items that can serve as "food" for fire. What should I do?

If the oil catches fire (in a pot or pan), then cut off the supply of gas and electricity. Cover the pan or pan with a lid, a wet cloth to extinguish the flames, and let them stand like this until the oil cools - otherwise the fire will flare up again. A rag made of coarse fabric (this should always be in the kitchen) throw on your hands, protecting them from fire. After that, to block the access of air to the fire, carefully throw it on a burning object. If burning oil, grease hits the floor or walls, use any washing powder (like a powder fire extinguisher) to extinguish it, pouring it over the fire. If the stove overheats, you first need to turn it off, and then cover the spiral with a wet cloth. On the balcony, you should store all items either under a tight casing, or in metal boxes. Firefighters also recommend keeping a bucket of sand on the balcony.


The cause of a fire in the elevator is most often unredeemed matches, cigarette butts thrown on the floor or in the elevator shaft, or a short circuit of electrical wiring.

At the first sign of a fire or when a slight haze appears in the cabin or elevator shaft, immediately inform the dispatcher by pressing the "call" button. If the elevator is moving, do not stop it yourself, but wait for it to stop. Once out of the cab, lock the doors with the first object you can get your hands on so that no one can call the elevator again and be trapped. When extinguishing a fire, do not enter the cabin, as it can spontaneously begin to move. The cabin is under tension, so it is dangerous to extinguish the fire with water - use a dense dry cloth, carbon dioxide or powder fire extinguisher, dry sand.

If, as a result of a short circuit of the wires, the elevator stopped between the floors, and the source of the fire is outside the cabin and it is impossible to extinguish it, shout, knock on the walls of the cabin, call for help. Try to push the automatic elevator doors apart with an umbrella, keys or other objects and get out, calling for help from neighbors. In elevators with non-automatic doors, you can (by opening the internal doors) press the lever with the roller in the outer door of the floor and open it from the inside. Be very careful when leaving the elevator: do not fall into the shaft. If it is not possible to get out of the elevator on your own, then cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief or sleeve until help arrives. clothes moistened with water, milk or even urine.


Do not burn old furniture, garbage, poplar fluff in the yards. If it is impossible to remove unnecessary things and fallen leaves, then burn them in a specially prepared place, preparing fire extinguishers, sand and watering hoses. Remember: the place should be open and cleared of grass!

In case of fire, immediately call the fire department, report the incident. Together with neighbors, try to localize the source of the fire, not to let the fire spread to wooden buildings and cars. In the absence of car owners, move the cars, if possible, to a safe distance and water them for cooling with water to avoid the explosion of fuel tanks.

Use watering hoses, buckets of water, sand and fire extinguishers for extinguishing, but remember that pouring water on burning coal and flammable liquids is ineffective. Take the children away from the fire, do not forget about your safety. Free up roads inside the yard for fire engines to pass. Ask residents to close the windows and windows, remove laundry from the balconies.


garage you can not smoke, make a fire, store oil rags, gas cylinders. Eliminate the ingress of water or fuel on the electrical wiring, which leads to a short circuit when the engine warms up. A fire in a garage is especially difficult to extinguish due to the fact that many store combustible materials there.

If a fire does occur, immediately call the firefighters, call for help from neighbors and passers-by. Try to roll the car out of the garage manually with them, as the engine may not start, and you will put yourself in danger. Do not let the fire spread to other garages, get close to fuel canisters or gas cylinders - as a result, an explosion is possible. Use fire extinguishers from neighboring garages, sand, snow, water, improvised means for extinguishing.

If your garage is insured, take a conclusion from the firefighters about the causes of the fire for subsequent registration of compensation for the damage caused.


IS ON FIRE Be careful: a fire in the car can be recognized almost immediately. The smell of gasoline or burnt rubber in the cabin, the appearance of smoke from under the hood - all these are factors that precede a fire and a fire.

When extinguishing fuel spilled under the car, use a fire extinguisher, feeding foam or powder in the direction from the edge to the center of the hearth. When extinguishing a fire under the hood, gradually and carefully open it - preferably on the side with a stick or mount, since this may release the flame. Direct the fire extinguisher to the hearth of the most intense burning or cover the flame with a tarp, throw sand, loose earth, snow, pour water. Do not start extinguishing if you are in oiled clothes or your hands are moistened with gasoline - this is extremely dangerous. If it is impossible to quickly eliminate the fire, move away from the car to a safe distance, as the fuel tank may explode. In no case do not get into a burning car, and do not try to start it. Within the radius of the danger zone (at least 10 meters) there should be no people.

While waiting for firefighters, pour water on nearby cars so that the fire does not spread to them or roll them aside with the help of passers-by and drivers. If in the roomThere is a person in the car on fire, and the doors are jammed, then break the doors or break the glass (with a mount, stone or feet). Pull the victim out of the car, call an ambulance and give him first aid or send him to the nearest medical center on the first car you stopped, remembering or writing down its number.

After eliminating the fire, report the incident to the nearest traffic police department.


IS BURNING This happens not only in action movies. Most often this happens in the kitchen with careless handling of fire or in car accidents.

If a person's clothes are burning, it is necessary to extinguish the fire as soon as possible. And it is quite difficult to do this, since from the pain he loses control over himself and begins to rush, thereby intensifying the flame. First of all, a burning person must be stopped in any way: either shout menacingly, or knock down the ground.

Tear off flammable clothes or extinguish them by pouring water (in winter, throw snow). If there is no water, throw any clothes or dense fabric on the victim, without covering his head, so that he does not get a burn of the respiratory tract and is not poisoned by toxic combustion products. But keep in mind: high temperature affects the skin the more destructively the longer and tighter the smoldering clothes are pressed against it. If there is nothing at hand, roll the burning man on the ground to bring down the flames.

After extinguishing the fire, take the victim out into the fresh air, cut the smoldering clothes and remove them, being careful not to damage the burned surface. Apply a bandage or clean cloth to the affected areas. With extensive burns, wrap the victim in a clean sheet, urgently call an ambulance or take him to the nearest medical institution on a stretcher. To reduce pain, give a tablet of analgin, baralgin or aspirin. If the victim does not vomit, constantly water him with water.

For first-degree burns (when the skin is only reddened), cold water, ice or snow is used (for ten minutes) to reduce pain and prevent tissue swelling, and then lubricate the affected area with vodka or cologne, but the bandage is not applied. Several times a day, they are treated with anti-burn aerosols or apply a thin layer of syntomycin ointment.

With second-degree burns (when blisters have formed, and some of them have burst), the affected areas should not be treated with vodka or cologne, as this will cause severe pain and burning. On the burn area, apply a sterile bandage of bandage or ironed tissue. Burned skin should not be lubricated with fat, green or potassium permanganate. This does not bring relief, but only makes it difficult for the doctor to determine the degree of tissue damage. Lotions from urine help well - this is an ancient and trouble-free folk remedy.

If your clothes catch fire on you, do not dare to run - the flames will flare up even more. Try to quickly throw off burning clothes. You are lucky if there is a puddle or snowdrift nearby - dive there. If they are not, fall to the ground and roll until you knock down the flames.

During combustion, poisonous gases are released: hydrocyanic acid, phosgene and others, and the oxygen content in the air drops. That is why not only and not even so much fire is dangerous, but smoke and fumes from it. It is necessary to take into account the possible reactions of the bodyand a person with an increase in the concentration of combustion products:

carbon monoxide: 0.01% - mild headaches; 0,05% - dizziness; 0,1% - fainting; 0.2% - coma, rapid death; 0.5% - instant death;

carbon dioxide: up to 0.5% - does not affect; from 0.5 to 7% - increased heart rate, the onset of paralysis of the respiratory centers; over 10% - paralysis of the respiratory centers and death.

2. Rules of conduct in case of an accident with a gas

leak Many natural gases are sources of danger to humans. However, the most dangerous are methane (urban main gas) and liquefied petroleum gas (in cylinders), used in everyday life. When leaked, they cause suffocation, poisoning and can lead to an explosion, so you need to know and strictly follow the rules for using gas appliances, columns, stoves and caring for them.


Having felt the smell of gas in the room, immediately cut off its supply to the stove. At the same time, do not smoke, do not light matches, do not turn on the lights and electrical appliances (it is best to de-energize the entire apartment by turning off the power supply on the switchboard), so that the spark cannot ignite the gas accumulated in the apartment and cause an explosion.

Thoroughly ventilate the entire apartment, not just the gassed room, by opening all doors and windows. Leave the room and do not enter it until the smell of gas disappears.

When signs of gas poisoning appear in others, take them out into the fresh air and put them so that the head is above the legs. Call an ambulance.

If the smell of gas does not disappear, urgently call the emergency gas service, working around the clock.

OUTSIDE THE HOUSE, store the gas cylinder in a ventilated room, in an upright position, do not bury it and do not put it in the basement.

Take steps to protect the cylinder and gas tube from heat and direct sunlight.

Refrain from replacing the gas cylinder if there is a fire nearby, hot coals, turned on electrical appliances. Make sure before replacing. that the taps of the new and used cylinders are closed. After replacement, check the tightness of the connections with a soapy solution.

To connect the cylinder to the gas stove, use a special flexible rubber hose marked with a length of not more than a meter, fixed with safety clamps. Do not allow it to be stretched or clamped.

Entrust the inspection and repair of gas equipment only to a qualified specialist.

Unused cylinders, both filled and empty, should be stored outdoors.

During cooking, make sure that boiling liquids do not flood the fire and do not cause gas leakage. At the end of the work, close the cylinder tap.

Clean the burners regularly, as their clogging can cause trouble.